Dec 19

Understanding Constructive Dismissal: A Deep Dive into the 3M Canada Case


The case of 3M Canada 2023 ONSC 5180 (CanLII), <>, presided over by Justice Spencer Nicholson on September 13, 2023, offers a detailed examination of the complexities surrounding constructive dismissal and disability accommodation in the workplace. This case, held in the Superior Court of Justice – Ontario, stands as a critical reference point for employees and employers navigating the nuances of employment law, particularly in contexts involving health challenges and workplace accommodations. Here, we unfold the layers of this case to extract key legal insights and practical implications for the modern workplace.

Case Background

The plaintiff, an employee of 3M Canada from September 1999 to January 2022, faced a series of health challenges, including a heart attack, a fall, and head trauma, leading to a medical leave of absence in August 2020. During this period, the plaintiff applied for short-term disability (STD) and, later, long-term disability (LTD) benefits. His return to work was marred by claims of a poisoned and toxic work environment, stemming from alleged failures by 3M to accommodate his medical disability.

The Core Issues

At the heart of this dispute were two key issues: constructive dismissal and the failure to accommodate the plaintiff’s disability. Constructive dismissal occurs when an employee resigns due to an employer’s conduct that fundamentally changes the terms of employment. The plaintiff contended that his resignation was a direct result of 3M’s actions and inactions, which created an intolerable work environment.

Additionally, the case involved allegations of breaching the Ontario Human Rights Code by failing to accommodate the plaintiff’s disability, a crucial aspect of employment law that ensures fair treatment of employees with disabilities.

Legal Proceedings and Decision

3M Canada filed a motion to strike the plaintiff’s claim, arguing it disclosed no reasonable cause of action. The defense centered on the notion that the Superior Court of Justice lacked jurisdiction over claims based on the Human Rights Code and that the allegations did not constitute an independent duty to accommodate.

Justice Nicholson, in his analysis, focused on the principles of constructive dismissal and the relevance of the Human Rights Code in such cases. He referenced several precedents, emphasizing that while the duty to accommodate is a central tenet of the Code, a civil action cannot be based solely on a breach of the Code. However, if the claim is grounded in an independent cause of action, such as constructive dismissal, it remains within the court’s purview.

In his decision, Justice Nicholson dismissed the motion to strike the claim, finding that the plaintiff’s allegations, if proven, could constitute constructive dismissal. He noted that the claim was not solely founded on a breach of the Code but was a claim for a breach of the employment contract, potentially including a breach of an implied term or duty to treat the employee with decency, respect, and dignity.

Key Legal Takeaways

(1) Constructive Dismissal and Employer Conduct: This case underscores that constructive dismissal can occur not only through direct actions but also through a series of acts or inactions by an employer that cumulatively make the work environment intolerable for the employee.

(2) Duty to Accommodate and Disability Discrimination: The court’s analysis highlights the importance of accommodating employees with disabilities and how failure to do so can lead to claims of discrimination and constructive dismissal.

(3) Jurisdiction of Human Rights Claims: The decision clarifies that while the Human Rights Tribunal of Ontario primarily handles human rights claims, such claims can be relevant in civil actions, like wrongful dismissal cases, if they relate to broader legal issues like breach of contract.

(4) Implications for Employers and Employees: The case serves as a crucial reminder for employers to proactively address accommodation needs and foster an inclusive work environment. For employees, it reaffirms the legal protections available when facing workplace challenges related to disabilities.


3M Canada is a landmark decision in the context of employment law, offering critical insights into constructive dismissal and the duty to accommodate disabilities in the workplace. It highlights the delicate balance employers must maintain in respecting employees’ rights and the legal ramifications of failing to do so. For employees, it serves as an empowering reminder of their rights and the legal avenues available to address workplace grievances.

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